| ||Alexandrovsky Alexander. Torzhok, horse|
canvas/oil, 30cm x 70cm, 2017
Torzhok was first mentioned in a chronicle in 1139 as Novy Torg. The Mongols burned it in 1238, but did not proceed northward to Novgorod. At that time, the town commanded the only route whereby grain was delivered to Novgorod. Once Torzhok blocked the route, a great shortage of grain and famine in Novgorod would follow. Consequently, Torzhok was known as a key to the Novgorod Republic and frequently changed hands during feudal internecine wars.
The town was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow with the rest of the Novgorod Republic in 1478. The Polish army frequently ravaged it during the Time of Troubles. During the imperial period, Torzhok was known as an important post station on the highway from Moscow to St. Petersburg. Alexander Pushkin, for instance, used to pass through Torzhok on a number of occasions, and there is a museum dedicated to him in the town.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Torzhok was included into Ingermanlandia Governorate (since 1710 known as Saint Petersburg Governorate), and in 1727 Novgorod Governorate split off. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, and Torzhok was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in 1796 was transformed to Tver Governorate. In 1775, Novotorzhsky Uyezd was established, with the center in Torzhok, and Torzhok was granted town status.
On July 12, 1929 the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Novotorzhsky District, with the administrative center in Torzhok, was established within Tver Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Novotorzhsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast. In February 1963, during the abortive administrative reform by Nikita Khrushchev, Torzhoksky, Likhoslavlsky, and Kamensky District were merged into a new district which was called Torzhoksky District. On March 4, 1964 Likhoslavlsky District, and on January 12, 1965 Kuvshinovsky District (which occupied the same area as the former Kamensky District) were re-established. Torzhoksky District retained the new name. In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.
winter country landscape, izba, road, forest, river, russia, village, sun, snow, rime, frost, snow, winter, horse, torzhok